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Heaidsburg, Calif. , High School 
William hi. Week*, Architect 




Some School Building Fire Hazards 

THE American Exchange and Review, Philadelphia, Pa., calls 
attention to the fact that fire losses on schoolhouses, which have 
been excessive for a number of years, are steadily increasing 

Some measure of the cause for this is partly explained by the fact 
that modern educational methods have introduced new hazards 
into schools. Manual training departments bring practically 
factor} hazard. Kitchens are provided for domestic science work 
and in som< for the preparation of meals for pupils Motion 

picture machines are in general use (or educational and entertainment 
purposes Chemical and physical laboratories introduce other haz- 
ards In addition there is the increased us chool huildi 
public meetings and entertainments of various kinds, invoking the 
lighted cigar and rette hazards While t l nditions apply 
chief!) to schools in the larger centers nevertheless manj ol the 
features mentioned are being introduced in the small-town and < 
in the t< wnship school 

Improved construction bettei ing and more watchfuli i 

are the principal remedies for reducii choolhousc fiu 

eurd In generi I >hio shows up better than I 

i »t <m\ here the fire I full) 

studied Ihi^ 1^ attributed to the superior building laws <,i | 

to schoolh uses w hich w i 
oftheColIii tool in which nearl) is children lost their lr 

( Mik » law p i all school buildii 

high shall I nstruction In addition lire 


\< i a mmunil I he live 

• • until I struct 

h\ crimin h\cs. 


7 3 

Concrete ScKoolKouses 

Fire-safe, Attractive, Permanent 

Are Your Schools Fire-Safe? 

THERE are only two classes of buildings/' 
says the Wisconsin Industrial Commission, 
"where attendance is involuntary — schools 
and jails." 

If the house or apartment where you live 
is a fire-trap or is unsanitary, you can move. 

School buildings are public property. The 
burden of responsibility for their proper 
construction is not with individuals who can 
be reached in a direct and positive way. The 
personnel of school boards changes, but the 
responsibility for expenditures for mainten- 
ance and even for calamities that are alto- 


In this modern and attract, 

Durant School, Oakland, Calif. 
concrete school the pupils security and comfort are safeguarded through the fire- 
resistive and permanent qualities of concrete. 




If you know a certain hotel or theater is 
not properly safeguarded against fire, you 
need not patronize it. 

Factory owners are compelled by law to 
safeguard their workers. Periodical inspec- 
tion is made to enforce all statutes directed 
toward prevention of fire and safety to life. 
Insurance underwriters even refuse insurance 
unless certain minimum standards of fire 
protection construction requirements and 
means of escape from fire in an emergency 
are provided. 

gether too frequent should not be shifted to 
other shoulders. 

The National Fire Protection Association, 
Boston, is responsible for the statement that 
"in the United States a fire occurs every day 
in some school/' Anyone who carefully 
investigates the subject will realize that the 
American people have given less thought to 
safeguarding the young lives in schools from 
the perils of fire than has been given to factory 

Page Three 

Concrete Schoolhouses 

Jeff* r s. «i s^ hool 


Wafthington A ,* 

Concrete Schoolhouses 

A\^\\l II R| 
*^ witi 

the pn n i3i 
when the 

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Kelly & Williams. Architects. Lounsbfrry & McLeod. Builders 

Morgan Park Public School, Duluth, Minn. 

The strong lines of its design emphasize the permanent character of this school building of structural concrete 
frame with exterior and interior walls of concrete brick. 

Public School Building, Mineville, N. Y. 

Small cities and towns also find concrete construction a satisfactory type for their school buildings. 

Page Si 


Lockwood School, Oakland, Calif. 
ThU one-story concrete tchooi building is built around four tick 

every room . \ playground for tmali children i& provided m ttu 
closure formed by the building 

JOHN I I \rchttecl 

Emerson School, Oakland, Calif. 
Modern ideas of permanence and fire safety are embodied in this one-story concrete tchooi building. 

Page Seoen 

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Concrete Schoolhouses 

i . First cost 

2. Maintenance 

3. Insurance 

4. Interest on first cost 

5. Depreciation of the building as a whole. 

Since schools have burned in the past, they 
will burn in the future, so there is a fire hazard. 
If the building burns it may be a total loss to 
the community. The cost of insurance must 
not be omitted from any consideration devoted 

W. J. Jennings. Architect. Oakey Bros.. Budders. 

Public School at South Madison, Wis. 
Concrete block as a construction material for school buildings has proved to be an economical investment in this 

attractive structure erected in iqoq. 

Annual taxes are levied to meet appropri- 
ations for interest and maintenance charges. 
Practice with respect to carrying insurance on 
school buildings varies, but in many cases is 
allowed to take care of itself — a procedure not 
countenanced by business organizations. 

to determining ultimate cost. In a building 
in which concrete has been consistently used 
throughout, neglect to carry fire insurance is 
not serious, since the highest measure of fire 
protection is built in with the concrete. But 
because of concrete construction, the saving 

Page Nine 

Concrete School houses 

in insurance must be credited to the concrete 
structure when comparing its cost with that 
of some other type of school building of com- 
bustible material. 

Depreciation of vital structural parts that 
cannot readily be reached for repair or main- 
tenance proceeds unless such parts arc of a 
non-depreciating material. With concrete 

A Comparison Between Permanent 
and Non-Permanent Construction 

IT is a simple matter to fix clearly in mind 
thedifference inultimatecost of a permanent, 
non-depreciating, and self-insuring because 
fireproof building, and a depreciable, burnable 
one. At the end of a certain period of time, 
the depreciable or cheaper type will be tern 

ntral School Building. Lake Charles I 
indation f>n 

construction depreciation as well as insurance 
will be negligible so it can be seen that first 
not form t i basis for con of 

the tru ' of typ school buildir 

Any school b nsideration 

nd disn the other fact 

simply p the burden of respon s ibility 

upon it '" q 

down and replaced bj a new building 
ne type, probably costing more th* 
first <>nc It is evident that ;* permarn 
buildin rig onlj i 15 per cent n 

than a deprcciah 1 ' is in H 

than two buildings of the last type Such a 
building aetualK r with age and 

will last indefinitely 


Concrete Schoolhouses 

Grammar School, Lawrence 

School District, Okla. 
Rural districts find in concrete 
construction an economical and 
fire-safe type for school buildings. 
The walls oj this building have 
pressed steel studs supporting re- 
inforced concrete slabs. Root is 
of concrete slab, plastered 
on metal lath 

I i on \rp> I I- Baily, Architect. 

While actual first cost is dependent on local 
conditions of labor and material supply, it is 
evident to all that some kinds of material 
commonly used in school buildings are becom- 
ing more difficult to obtain. On the other 
hand the supply of materials for concrete 
construction is practically inexhaustible and 
there is no natural limit on its production. 

Reinmart & Donovan'. Engineers O Contractors. 

Also a permanent concrete school building can 
be constructed in many localities for a first 
cost actually less than other types that may 
be compared with it. 

Maintenance of any structure includes 
painting, repairing, replacing broken or worn- 
out parts or members and in general all labor 
and materials used to keep the building as 

Concrete inclines or ramps from 
floor to floor are used in place oj 
stairs in Healdsburg and Wat- 
sonville, Calif, high schools. The 
floors are of concrete covered with 
eork carpet. These ramps promote 
safety of movement within 
the building. 

Page Eleven 

The Architectural Adaptability of Concrete to School Buildii 

William H. Weeks. Architect. 

High School, Watsonville, Calif. 

This group of attractive high school buildings illustrates some of the 
satisfying possibilities of concrete in accepted styles of school architecture 
in the various parts of the country. 

Concrete has proved adaptable to and capable of successfully 
meeting the requirements of a wide range of varied designs peculiar to 
different sections of the country. 

An unusual style of architecture for school buildings has been devel- 
oped in California, some of which are shown in this book. Details of 
the entrance and assembly room windows of the Watsonville High School 
are shown on pages 14 and 75. 

Fort Worth High School, Fort Worth, Texas. 

Technical High School. Oakland 

Page Twckc 

ftuildin&s is Shown by this Group of Distinctive Designs 



^ ^vw! 

BEE? aasss 

High School Building, Seabreeze, Daytona Beach, Fla. 

Mark & Sheftall. Architects. 

khool, Oakland, Calif. 

The beauty and strength of the Greek order of architecture is repro- 
duced, with the aid of concrete, in the Technical High School of Oakland. 
California. The high school buildings of Fort Worth, Texas, and Sea- 
breeze, Daytona Beach, Florida, are examples of the substantial effect 
obtained by using noncombustible units in combination with monolith U 
and structural concrete. 

Structural concrete frame and concrete brick buildings embody all the 
requisites of fire-safe construction, and provide for a maximum of day- 
light and fresh air, as is evidenced by the East Side High School, Salt 
Lake City. Utah. 

East Side High School, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Eldridce & Chesbro. Architects. 

Page Thirteen 

Concrete Schoolhouses 

Watsonville, Calif. 
High School. 

Detail of entrance and end 

pavilion. Ail ornamentation 

is o) precast cont rcte in 

delit ate tints 

nearly as possible in its original condition. 
It naturally follows that a type of construction 
which depreciates rapidly, requires heavy and 
increasing maintenance expenditures These 
expenditures consume annually a considerable 
part of the school fund, and regardless of how 
carefully and systematically maintenance may 
be performed, it cannot prevent gradual depre- 
ciation of the building as a whole. 

Structural parts that vitally affect the 
strength of a building arc not accessible for 
maintenance and the life of structural mem- 
bers determines the useful life of the building. 
Repairs necessitated by fires that affect struc- 
tural parts and hence the integrity of the struc- 
ture, are expensive. How ever well they may be 
made, they do not always cntirelv remove the 

weakening effects of a fire. Concrete will 
stand very high temperatures without injurv. 
From the very nature of the limited quantitv 
<>l combustible contents in school buildin 
a fire in a concrete school rarely or never could 
reach sufficient proportions to affect the 
strength of structural par I 

Maintenance on a non-fireproofed, dt 
ciable building can do no more than postpone 
the evil day w hen the structure will be branded 
unsafe and will have to be replaced. On the 
other hand, as concrete grows stronger with 
age and requires no repairs, painting or simi- 
lar maintenance; only interior decoration^ 
trim and such portions as max be of 
depreciable material need to be maintained. 

One of the most important requirements of 

Page Fourteen 

Concrete School houses 

modern school buildings is that they be clean, 
well lighted, well ventilated, and therefore pro- 
vide sanitary, healthful quarters for school 
children. Concrete buildings are clean and 
easy to keep clean, which suggests healthful 
quarters as well as low cost of janitor service. 
Saving through low maintenance expense made 
possible by the use of concrete, leaves more 
money available for extending the school sys- 
tem and likewise results in holding down the 
school taxes. Concrete buildings represent an 
addition to the permanent wealth of a com- 

Design and Construction 

COMMUNITY pride should insist upon 
public structures that at least arc attract- 

ive. They should also be as dignified as public 
funds and popular taste will permit. Any 
community should be able to refer with pride 
to its school system and the merits of that 
system should so far as possible be evidenced 
in its school buildings, 

Many special features that contribute to 
the hcalthfulness, safety, convenience and 
comfort of modern school buildings are incor- 
porated in the design of modern structures of 
concrete. Among these may be mentioned 
ramps instead of stairs, swimming pools, tennis 
courts, drinking fountains and playground 
walls and fences. An illustration on page 11 
shows a concrete ramp or incline in a public 
school at Watsonville, Calif. The slope is 2 

Watsonville, Calif. High School. 

Detail of assembly room windows, showing 
the semi-oriental style of architecture 
adopted for this high school buildii 

Page Fifteen 

Concrete Schoolhouses 


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Floor Plans of Healdsburg, Calif., High School. 

First floor plan above, second floor plan below. This building like the one at Watsonville is of fireproof 

construction throughout. All stairways between floors have been replaced by 

concrete ramps, or inclines, which facilitate movement 

of ptipils through the building. 



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fugc Sixteen 

Concrete Schoolhouses 

inches per foot and the ramp is 6 feet wide, 
including the concrete balustrade. Ramps of 
this kind instead of stairs have been used ex- 
tensively by William f I. Weeks, architect, in a 
number of schools he has designed in Cali- 
fornia. Both materials and labor neces 
its construction are cheaper than for Stairwa 

booklet are proof of this statement Graceful 
monumental and unassumiru I buildir 

are illustrated which architecturally could not 
be improved upon, if equalled, bj am other 

structural material. It should also be borne 
in mind that the cost of most, if r* >t all i 
structures, was less than that of am other 

lit inMj Hall of High s i CaUi 

In ihi^ 


( bncretc has mam ti 
bilitv in architecture 
architectural treatment 

ste for school buildings, which 
worked out most satisl 

nstruction Ma 

cam ar 

:! than the former 

H iff SnaiUtn 


M. P. At \-. MoNTCOMERY, Architect. Ami hk UM CoscprTr Stefi Co.. Contractors. 

Lincoln Public School, Summit, N. J. 

Simple and attractive architectural effect is readily obtained with concrete surface finish. 

Lafayette Bloom School, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Structural concrete frame in the course of construction. 

Pat* Eighteen 

Conckiltk School houses 

F. W. Redlick, Architect. 

Reinhabt &" Donovan. Engineers c~* Contractors. 

Armory Gymnasium Building, Stillwater, Okla. 
Structural concrete frame. Running track is carried on reinforced concrete cantilevei construction 

(p -T&ktz 

flETK & I I I 

erri H on< reti Construction Co.. i ngineet , t I ontrm ton 
Fourteenth District School, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Four-story structural concrete frame, 25 foot spans. Swimming pool of reinforced concrete is provided on the 

first floor and a playground on the roof. 

Page Nineteen 

Concrete Schoolhouses 

Public School Building, 

Stuart, Fla. 
Concrete block construction 
'ijmical and uses local 

Methods of designing after the various 

systems are fully given in standard text books 
on reinforced concrete design. Many archi- 
tects and engineers now recognize the peculiar 
advantages of concrete, and specialize in con- 
crete design and construction Some specialize 
largely in school buildings 

In addition to having correct architectural 

and structural design, school buildings should 
be light, sanitary, warm and dry. All tl i 
requirements can readily be fulfilled by con- 
crete construction. Concrete permits daylight 
lighting. Floor loads arc transmitted directlj 
or indirectly to columns and hearing walls 

Modern Concrete 

School Building at 
\K>oscheart, 111. 

The ' 



Concrete Schoolhouses 

Roselyn Farm School, 
Carnegie, Pa. 

Small fire-re.%istive concrete school) 
are ultimately most economical 

I n< >t be used. Entii e between i 

umns and floors may therefore be flooded with 
da) light. 

Finished ^< incretc ft I walls pn 

.in unbroken, hard, durable, impervious 
sanitar) I here are no 

. Ices i' >r the collect!* »n and l< d fnv r\\ 
filth. ( Hbject i< ins to uncovered o mcret( 

ause d their hard, unj ieldin | surfs 
largely unfounded. However, it it is desired 
to use another type of floor sui 

kinds of linoleum or other I 1 

rilable \ ma) be put over 

ombeddi In the 

floor slab when o increte i I but n 

the : f \ and sanitat l< m 

I tie modern l 

ill) suitabl< a. ills i ■ 


uniform size and 

ns mal 
wall and I 
hollo* space usual!) molded in th 

•. k.l Mir 

Concrete Schoolhouses 

Reinforced Concrete Stadium 

of the New Central High 

School, Washington, 

D. C. 

This stadium seats 6,000 persons 

and is fire and accident proof in 

every respect. 

I Iammett Fireproofi\g Co., Contractors. 

ing qualities, but in cold climates all masonry 
walls should be furred, lathed and plastered 
on the interior. 

A number of economical methods have been 
developed for constructing double walls of 
monolithic concrete. Very thorough insula- 

tion of walls is accomplished through the 
introduction of such a dead air space within 
the wall. Care must be taken that no air 
passages exist around door and window 
frames, thus permitting free circulation of 
air in the space in the wall. The dead 

Manual Training Depart- 
ment, Morgan Park School , 
Duluth, Minn. 
rete construction, including 
concrete brick, removes the 
fire hazard due to combustible 
material* or electrical equipment 
used for instruction in manual 
training and domestic art.\ 

Page Tuenty-tuo 

Concrete Schoolhouses 

air space prevents the interior face of the wall 
from becoming cold during extreme low 
temperature and likewise checks radiation of 
heat from the building through the wall. 

Concrete buildings have peculiar advantages 
from the standpoint of actual construction. 
Most of the materials required are of local 
origin and with the modern methods now 
applied, the speed and ease with which con- 
crete buildings may be erected are remarkable. 
Usually funds for school buildings are not 
appropriated until the need for the building 
has been definitely demonstrated and probably 

become urgent. Therefore once a new school 
is decided upon, there is insistent demand for 
its early completion. If concrete is specified, 
the work can be under way as soon as prelim- 
inary or foundation plans have been completed. 

Because most of the materials and a great 
deal of the labor required in concrete construc- 
tion can be obtained locally, the commumtx 
using concrete for its public buildings is largely 
paying its own money back to itself. In other 
words, the greater portion of the mone\ 
remains at home. 


SOME of the vital features that a school building 
must possess are protection against (ire. storm and 

It must be easy to keep clean, light, healthful and 

It should be of a type of construction that \\ ill protect 
the taxpayer's investment from loss by the elements 

It should not be subject to depreciation nor require 
heavy maintenance expenditu- 

It should add to the permanent wealth of the com- 

Architecturally it should promote community pride. 

It should be low in ultimate cost. 

All of these requirements are fulfilled with concrete 

Page Tucnty-thrcc 

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A National Organization 

To Improve and Extend the 
Uses of Cement and Concrete 

1 Offers You Its Services I 

We know and can tell you how to use concrete 
so that best results will be obtained. 

Our various District Offices listed below are 
service organisations. Get their help in your 
concrete problems. In addition you are invited 
to correspond with our headquarters, 1 1 1 West 
Washington Street, Chicago, where our 

HIGHWAYS BUREAU will be glad to consult with and advise you on all matters 
relating to the improvement of roads, streets and alleys through the medium of 
concrete. Our 

STRUCTURAL BUREAU will give you help and cooperation on individual problems 
involving the use of concrete for railroad work, bridges and culverts, buildings, dams, 
power houses and other structures. Our 

CEMENT PRODUCTS BUREAU can advise on the suitability and availability of all 
structural concrete products, as well as concrete sewer and culvert pipe, drain tile, 
telegraph and telephone poles, lighting standards, etc. 

These departments are constantly in touch with the extensive researches 
being made by the Structural Materials Research Laboratory, operated 
jointly with the Lewis Institute, Chicago. Their recommendations are 
based on the most advanced information obtainable. 

Educational booklets and pamphlets fully illustrating and describing the 
important uses of concrete await your request. We are at your service. 
Consult us freely. Your satisfaction is our reward. 

Portland Cement Association 


Dcs Moines 

Kansas City 


Los Artfjele* 
New York 

Portland, Oreg. 
Salt Lake City 

San Francisco 
St. Louts 
Vancouver, B. C. 

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ISM— 441-1